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Neighboring codons on a message are nonoverlapping. ● First Position (5' End) U } } U UUU UUC Phe UUA UUG Leu C CUU CUC CUA CUG A AUU AUC AUA AUG G } C A } Ser UAU Tyr UAC UAA UAG Stop Pro CAU CAC CAA CAG Thr UCU UCC UCA UCG } CCU Leu CCC CCA CCG } lle Met } GUU GUC GUA GUG Val } ACU ACC ACA ACG GCU GCC GCA GCG } Ala G } } UGU UGC UGA UGG } His } Gln CGU CGC CGA CGG AAU Asn AAC AAA AAG Lys } } AGU AGC AGA AGG } Asp } Glu GGU GGC GGA GGG GAU GAC GAA GAG Figure I-4-1. com Chapter 4 The Genetic Code, Mutations, and Translation ● MUTATIONS A mutation is any permanent, heritable change in the DNA base sequence of an organism.

This change in protein structure can be predicted using the genetic code table in conjunction with the base sequence of DNA or mRNA. A variety of such mutations is listed in Table I-4-1. Point mutations and frameshifts are illustrated in more detail in Figure I-4-2. Table I-4-1. Effects of Some Common Types of Mutations on Protein Structure Type of Mutation Effect on Protein Silent: new codon specifies same amino acid None Missense: new codon specifies different amino acid Possible decrease in function; variable effects Nonsense: new codon is stop codon Shorter than normal; usually nonfunctional Frameshift/in-frame: addition or deletion of base(s) Usually nonfunctional; often shorter than normal Large segment deletion (unequal crossover in meiosis) Loss of function; shorter than normal or entirely missing 5’ splice site (donor) or 3’ splice site (acceptor) Variable effects ranging from addition or deletion of a few amino acids to deletion of an entire exon Trinucleotide repeat expansion  xpansions in coding regions cause E protein product to be longer than normal and unstable.

A) Examine the options given. A correct option will have the complement (A in this example) at the 3′ end. Repeat the procedure for the 3′ end of the DNA. This will usually leave only one or two options. com Molecular Biology and Biochemistry 2. Transcription of the following sequence of the tryptophan operon occurs in the direction indicated by the arrow. What would be the base sequence of the mRNA produced? 3’ CGTCAGC 5’ Transcription → 5′…GCAGTCG…3′ Which product? 5′…CGUGAGC…3′ The answer is A.

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