By R. Drucker-Colín, H. Merchant-Nancy (auth.), Anthony Kales M.D. (eds.)
The final 4 many years have witnessed enormous advances in our wisdom of the pharmacology of sleep. either simple and medical pharmacology have made significant contributions towards our present knowing of the advanced mechanisms of sleep and wakefulness. moreover, those advances in our knowing of the pharmacology of sleep have benefited the remedy of sleep issues and diverse neurologic and psychiatric stipulations. This quantity is geared up into 3 assorted components. the 1st is a evaluation of the fundamental mechanisms of sleep and wakefulness and the chronobiology of sleep. the second one half stories the fundamental pharmacology of a number of the neuro transmitter platforms interested by sleep and wakefulness, whereas the 3rd is clinically orientated and makes a speciality of the consequences of numerous medicinal drugs on sleep and wakefulness. The preliminary half starts off with a old evaluation of the hypotheses of the mechanisms of sleep, evolving from passive to energetic law, and ideas related to sleep-related neurotransmitters and different sleep elements. Then legislation of sleep and wakefulness is mentioned by way of homeostatic, circadian, and ultradian approaches. additionally mentioned is the truth that sleep homeostasis isn't really disrupted by way of the management of hypnotic medicinal drugs. This half additionally studies time-dependent homes of pharmacologic brokers in terms of endogenous biologic rhythms and extra in particular to chrono pharmacologic changes.
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Additional info for The Pharmacology of Sleep
List of the various neurotransmitters studied in relation to sleep Substances Neurotransmitters Serotonin Norepinephrine SWS REM sleep + t No change + No change t t t Acetylcholine + Dopamine + Histamine + GABA + ~ ~ ~ No change ~ t t t ~ ~ or ~ ~ ~ t No change No change t or ~ 20 R. DRUCKER-COLIN and H. MERCHANT-NANCY in which an increment of SWS or REM sleep was observed after the acquisition of a learning paradigm (see SMITH 1985), in the final analysis, however, considers SWS and REM sleep as a unitary process, remarkably similar to the original Hernandez-Peon postulate of sleep transitions.
University of Chicago Press KornmiiUer AE, Lux HD, Winkel K, Klee M (1961) Neurohumoral ausgeloste Schlafzustande an Tieren mit gekreuztem Kreislauf unter der KontroUe von EEG-Ableitungen. Naturwissenschaften 48:503-505 Krueger J, Karnovsky ML (1987) Sleep and the immune response.
This concept would suggest that REM sleep would function as a result of an excitostat system, whereby REM sleep is maintained if excitability is increased, while animals would awaken should such excitability diminish. Another more general model to explain sleep mechanisms is the twoprocess model of sleep regulation of BORBELY (1982; BORBELY and TOBLER 1989), which suggests a direct role of sleep factors in the homeostatic component of sleep. According to this model, two separate processes underlie sleep regulation: a sleep-dependent or homeostatic process (S), and a sleep-independent or circadian process (C).