By Wyn Grant
Several hundred directives on environmental coverage were produced via the eu Union. What influence has the output of the 'legislative manufacturing facility' had? After contemplating how judgements on environmental coverage within the ecu are made, and the stability of energy among enterprise and environmental pursuits, this e-book attracts at the professional services of the authors to seem extensive on the components of worldwide warming, water pollutants and air pollution.
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Additional resources for The Effectiveness of European Union Environmental Policy
Indeed, within a company, there may be a divergence of interest in relation to a particular environmental policy proposal. Coen (1998, p. 9) notes: BP is a large producer of both ethanol and fossil fuels and each has a separate proﬁt centre. However, when faced with the possibility of the EU environmental legislation that gave tax concessions to synthetic fuel, the ﬁrm had to decide whether to lobby for fossil fuels or environmentally friendlier ethanol base products. In this case, the planners favoured the traditional extraction sector as they had just negotiated a new exploration programme.
Financial Times, 13 November 1997) A strengthened cabinet did, however, help her to make progress in areas such as car recycling and air pollution and she prioritised three areas of activity: ‘greening’ the CAP; helping East European governments to meet environmental compliance standards; and better enforcement of existing EU environmental legislation. The ﬁrst of these, however, is heavily dependent on cooperation from another DG, while the last depends on the cooperation of member state governments.
Lobbyists were able to erode the consensus among states within the EU in favour of a binding directive (Newell and Paterson, 1998, p. 686). Even if a directive is passed, business lobbies may be able to undermine policies by refusing to cooperate at the implementation stage. In the case of the carbon tax, a number of member state governments were warned by their energy sectors that they would not meet voluntary energy efﬁcient targets if governments proceeded with the tax proposal or imposed it unilaterally: Trade associations of appliance makers also obstructed European efforts to impose mandatory standards for energy efﬁciency on their products, by refusing to supply data and cooperate in an energy efﬁciency study upon which to base policy, delaying the efforts of the EU to meet its obligations under the Climate Convention.