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By Beek B., Böhling S., Bruckmann U.

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Schroll R, Bierling B, Cao G, Dörfler U, Lahaniati M, Langenbach T, Scheunert I, Winkler R (1994) Chemosphere 28 (2):297 46. Bacci E, Cerejeira MJ, Gaggi C, Chemello G, Calamari D, Vighi M (1990) Chemosphere 21 (4/5):525 47. Koelmanns AA, Jiménez CS (1994) Chemosphere 28 (12):2041 48. Stahlschmidt-Allner P (1992) Toxikokinetik und Toxikodynamik von grenzflächenaktiven Stoffen in aquatischen Organismen. Expert report on behalf of the Umweltbundesamt, reg. no. 1–97 316/24 The Assessment of Bioaccumulation 275 49.

Landis WG, Hughes JS, Lewis MA (eds) Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment, ASTM STP 1179, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia (1997) pers. comm. 79. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 305 A-E: Bioaccumulation. 12 May 1981, Paris 80. Commission Directive 93/67/EEC of 20 July 1993 laying down the principles for assessment of risk to man and the environment of substances notified in accordance with the requirements of Council Directive 67/548/EEC.

5 Conclusions – The risk assessment of bioaccumulation by environmental authorities should not be based on QSARs alone since many chemicals do not obey commonly applied correlations. Whereas overestimation of bioaccumulation may be irrelevant to real environmental conditions, underestimation of risks may have serious consequences for ecosystems. – Risk assessment of bioaccumulation solely based on the BCF is insufficient and may be misleading. Instead, a tiered risk assessment strategy of bioaccumulation and biomagnification is proposed taking into account the complexity of bioaccumulation processes integrating equally the key parameters BCF/BAF and depuration half-life times for deriving four classes which characterize the risk of bioaccumulation and if necessary trigger further ecotoxi- The Assessment of Bioaccumulation 273 cological tests.

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