By V. Di Marzo (auth.)
Reviews of body structure, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Volume one hundred sixty 2008
V. di Marzo: Endocannabinoids: Synthesis and Degradation
R. Rivera and J. Chun: organic results of Lysophospholipids
S. J. O’Meara, okay. Rodgers, and C. Godson: Lipoxins: replace and influence of Endogenous Pro-Resolution Lipid Mediators
R.K.P. Benninger, M. Hao, and D. Piston: Multi-photon Excitation Imaging of Dynamic procedures in dwelling Cells and Tissues
G. Schmitz and M. Grandl: Lipid Homeostasis in Macrophages – Implications for Atherosclerosis
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Extra resources for Reviews of Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology
2002). S1P3 RNA was also detected in the embryonic lung, kidney, intestine, submandibular gland, and cartilaginous regions (Ishii et al. 2001; McGiffert et al. 2002; Zhang et al. 1999). Similar to S1P2 , S1P3 was also found to couple to the Gi , Gq , and G12/13 G protein families in Sf9 co-expression experiments (Windh et al. 1999) (Fig. 2). When expressed in Jurkat T cells or Xenopus oocytes, activation of S1P3 by S1P induces calcium mobilization (An et al. 1997a, 1999; Ancellin and Hla 1999).
We note that S1P is also generated by the hydrolysis of sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) by ATX (Clair et al. 2003) (Fig. 1). However, this occurs at a lower efficiency than the generation of LPA from LPC, and is currently of uncertain biological significance. Downregulation of lysophospholipid activity occurs in part, through the action of lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). There are three members of this family of integral membrane glycoproteins, LPP-1, LPP-2, and LPP-3, also known as PAPs (Kai et al.
Sphingosine 1-phosphate generation and the induction of angiogenic vascular maturation. J Biol Chem 277:6667–6675 Aoki J, Taira A, Takanezawa Y, Kishi Y, Hama K, Kishimoto T, Mizuno K, Saku K, Taguchi R, Arai H (2002) Serum lysophosphatidic acid is produced through diverse phospholipase pathways. J Biol Chem 277:48737–48744 Bandoh K, Aoki J, Hosono H, Kobayashi S, Kobayashi T, Murakami-Murofushi K, Tsujimoto M, Arai H, Inoue K (1999) Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human G-protein-coupled receptor, EDG7, for lysophosphatidic acid.