By Francois Orivel, Jurgen Schriewer, Elizabeth S. Swing, Elizabeth Sherman Swing
Written by way of students and pros from such firms because the Council of Europe and the eu neighborhood, this quantity presents a entire exam of schooling all through Europe. The particularities of nationwide academic platforms are of necessity inside of its purview, yet total association of the quantity displays such thematic and nearby issues because the impression of social and financial integration on schooling, the amendment of academic buildings and curricula following the loss of life of communism in jap Europe, measure equivalency, the financing of academic swap, privatization, the effect of migration and immigration, nationwide issues, intercultural schooling, and multiculturalism. The volume's specialists speak about ecu education's universal historical past and the exact nationwide traditions it preserves. They care for the interpretations of ecu schooling structures recommend within the form of academic theories or reform-oriented courses, regulations, and ideologies, in addition to with the social actors, forces, and hobbies that experience fuelled reform. The book's chapters additionally handle the demanding situations eu schooling has to stand on account of approaches of switch taking place at a number of degrees: on the degrees of cultural values, socio-political reconstruction, intercultural migration, supra-national integration, and ongoing worldwide interconnection.
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Private schools can be subject to relatively strict regulations similar to those in state schools (le contrat simple). In this case the state pays the salaries of the teaching staff. Or private schools can be autonomous and have their own regulations (le contrat d’association). In this case they are subject only to the national inspectorate. The main principles of the e´ducation nationale are as follows: The state is responsible for the existence of a public school system and guarantees private education under its supervision.
But there are also advantages. Less attractive schools, such as those in decaying inner cities, in municipalities with large immigrant populations, or in rural areas do not have to fear that they will suffer local discrimination (Avenarius 1995). As a civil servant, the teacher is in principle subject to directives and obliged to obey regulations, but pedagogic freedom gives him or her a certain scope for independent instruction and education. The principle of pedagogic freedom both complements and modifies the teacher’s status as a civil servant.
Although the state legally does not have a monopoly on schools, the federal and most La¨nder constitutions guarantee the right to private schooling. But in practice, private schools play a marginal role; only about 6% of students attend these institutions, most of which are controlled by Catholic or Protestant denominations. Two instruments ensure the stability of the educational systems of the sixteen La¨nder. The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) in Karlsruhe may review laws enacted in the La¨nder.