By John Binyon and G. A. Kerkut (Auth.)
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Extra info for Physiology of Echinoderms
SW, sea water. 184 152 87 614 411 42 PHYSIOLOGY OF ECHINODERMS from one coelomic cavity to another. The stomach wall is also extremely permeable to water and in the process of equilibration to a medium of differing osmotic pressure it is possible that water could enter or leave the animal by this route. Starfish stranded by the falling tide frequently have their stomachs everted, penetrating some little distance down between the gravel. At the lower levels of the beach, the water table is usually only a few centimetres below the surface and it would seem possible that water lost by evaporation from the aboral surface could be replaced osmotically from this source.
SW A. rubens (North Sea) A. , ambulacral fluid from the water vascular system; SW, sea water. ECHINOIDEA 428 418 429 216 215 PV SW Solaster endica Asterias vulgaris Astropecten sp. A. rubens (Kid) Na IONIC — — 420 460 458 Fluid 3. PV SW PV PV SW ASTEROIDEA Species TABLE IONIC REGULATION AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 45 11-3 10-5 548 543 456 475 458 439 435 420 458 PV SW PV Amb. SW PV SW PV SW H. tubulosa Cucumaria frondosa Caudina chilensis 9-7 8-5 10-2 9-7 9-7 9-7 8-9 8-9 9-7 12 0 11-7 13-7 12-7 9-6 9-4 9-7 12-7 12-7 12-7 Ca 55-2 33-8 54-3 53-9 33-2 31-0 33-8 64-5 63 0 59-7 61-7 48-6 49-3 33-8 51-8 53-1 61-7 Mg 488 492 529 528 501 494 492 636 633 649 627 488 488 492 30-2 25-4 27-0 27-6 25-5 25-4 25-4 32-8 32-6 31-5 31-2 29-0 29-8 25-4 32-1 30-3 31-2 S04 FLUIDS—cont.
Though it may take the form of dolomite or magnesite, the actual crystal form of the magnesium carbonate is uncertain. Each skeletal unit is most probably a single crystal with a warped molecular lattice where necessary to permit curvature of the test or skeleton. Much crystallographic data has been amassed chiefly for morphological or palaeontological purposes. In a series of papers, Raup has shown that the majority of echinoids have the oaxis either perpendicular or tangential to the test with very little variation between the 6 5 3 6 56 oral and aboral extremities.