Download Microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and antigen retrieval by M.A. Hayat PDF

By M.A. Hayat

Histochemistry bargains with the actions of chemical parts in cells, and immunohistochemistry addresses the functionality of telephone forms in tissue or organs, similar to these resulting in attractiveness or rejection of grafts or organs.

This ebook is a tools quantity concentrating on antigen retrieval, really tools utilized in disease-related antigens. as the publication is a equipment quantity and a lab guide, it's going to have an viewers of pathologists, biochemists, and lab technicians.

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Extra info for Microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and antigen retrieval methods: for light and electron microscopy

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Genetic instability is the cause of both tumor progression and tumor heterogeneity. As a result, no two tumors are exactly alike and no single tumor is constituted of genetically identical cells. Tumor 14 Chapter 1 heterogeneity is an obstacle in standardizing the diagnosis, as well as in selecting therapeutic strategies. However, it should be noted that although genetic instability is essential for neoplasia to develop, the instability may provide equally valid therapeutic targets. TUMOR HETEROGENEITY Heterogeneity has been reported in a variety of human tumors.

The receptors have distinct roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during embryonic development. Precise roles of the three receptors have been discussed by Veikkola and Alitalo (1999). Transcription of VEGF mRNA is induced by a variety of growth factors and cytokines, including platelet-derived growth factor-BB, epidermal growth factor, tumor necrosis transforming growth and (Ferrara and Davis-Smyth, 1997). , 1996). Hypoxic upregulation of VEGF thus provides a compensatory mechanism by which tissues can increase their oxygenation through induction of blood vessel growth.

At the molecular level, multiple copies of an amplicon containing a growth-promoting gene can be detected. , 1985). Almost all solid tumors are genetically unstable. Translocations and gene amplifications add to the chromosomal abnormalities and may reflect additional mechanisms for generating genetic instability that occurs as tumors grow. Genetic instability is the cause of both tumor progression and tumor heterogeneity. As a result, no two tumors are exactly alike and no single tumor is constituted of genetically identical cells.

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