By Keith J. Gooch, Christopher J. Tennant
Animal telephone tradition nimal cellphone tradition begun in 1912 while Alexis Carrel grew bits of chick middle A in vitro through putting them right into a drop of horse plasma. whilst the plasma clotted, it shaped an exceptional floor into which the guts cells explanted. Left unattended, those cells died inside of numerous days. through on a regular basis feeding the develop ing cells with aqueous extracts of complete chick embryos and periodically sub dividing them, Carrel was once in a position to continue the cells for prolonged sessions. From those preliminary experiments, mobile tradition has elevated into an enormous part of organic learn and advertisement creation. Animal telephone tradition is a crucial device for the learn of complicated biologi cal platforms. In vivo it is usually very unlikely to focus on a remedy to 1 particular telephone sort or to thoroughly regulate the surroundings. for instance, it's impos sible to selectively depolarize endothelial cells in vivo to figure out the position of transmembrane strength within the transduction of fluid mechanical forces generated by means of blood circulate to a biochemical reaction. Depolarizing the entire cells in the vascular method by means of injecting potassium chloride into the animal's bloodstream in actual fact isn't really an choice, because it will result in cardiac arrest.
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Additional info for Mechanical Forces: Their Effects on Cells and Tissues
Hutcheson IR, Griffith TM. Release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor is modulated both by frequency and amplitude of pulsatile flow. Am J Physiol 1991; 261:H257 -62. 108. Acevedo AD et a1. Morphological and proliferative responses of endothelial cells to hydrostatic pressure: role of fibroblast growth factor. J Cell Physiol 1993; 157:603-614. 109. Kato S et a1. Ambient pressure stimulates immortalized human aortic endothelial cells to increase DNA synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (tissue collagenase) production.
Fig. 5A,B. At the onset of flow, there is a burst in 6-keto-prostaglandin F,a production followed by sustained steady production for almost 10 h (Panel A). The increase in sustained rate of synthesis is proportional to the magnitude of the shear stress applied (Panel B). With permission from Frangos JA, McIntire LV, Eskin SG. Biotechnol Bioeng 1988; 32:1053-60. Endothelial Cells 31 C 150 120 ...... c: "0 Q) VI tV Q) - 'iii +J 0 C. 90 ... C) & E 60 o 0 )(~ z c:E ....... 5C. Effect of shear stress on cumulative (NO,- and NO;-) NO.
62. Malek A et al. Fluid shear stress differentially modulates expression of genes encoding basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor B chain in vascular endothelium. J Clin Invest 1993; 92:2013-21. 63. Resnick N et al. Platelet-derived growth factor B chain promoter contains a cis-acting fluid shear-stress-responsive element. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90:4591-5. 64. Uematsu M et al. Mechanisms of endothelial cell NO synthase induction by shear stress (abstract). Circulation 1993; 88:1:184.