By Robert H. Chen
An unparalleled look at the elemental physics, chemistry, and know-how at the back of the LCDMost particularly used for laptop monitors, televisions, and cell phones, LCDs (liquid crystal screens) are a pervasive and more and more necessary a part of our lives. offering either an ancient and a business-minded context, this wide source describes the original medical and engineering innovations used to create those appealing, smart, and eminently necessary devices.In this ebook, the heritage of the technology and know-how in the back of the liquid crystal display is defined in a prelude to the advance of the machine, offering a rational improvement subject matter and pinpointing recommendations. The publication starts with Maxwell's conception of electromagnetism, and the eventually profound consciousness that gentle is an electromagnetic wave and an electromagnetic wave is light.The strength of mathematical physics therefore was once dropped at endure upon the examine of sunshine, and especially the polarization of sunshine by way of fabric our bodies, together with liquid crystals. After a quick ancient description of polarization, a actual interpretation presents substance to the mathematical innovations. next chapters cover:Thermodynamics for liquid crystalsThe Maier-Saupe suggest box, phenomenological, static continuum, and dynamic continuum theoriesThe transistor and built-in circuitGlass, panels, and modulesThe calculus of variationsThe energetic matrixSemiconductor fabricationThe worldwide liquid crystal display businessAdditionally, the ebook illustrates how arithmetic, physics, and chemistry are positioned to sensible use within the LCDs we use each day. by means of describing the technology from an ancient point of view and in sensible phrases within the context of a tool very time-honored to readers, the e-book offers a fascinating and particular view of the know-how for everybody from technological know-how scholars to engineers, product designers, and certainly an individual considering LCDs.Series Editor: Anthony C. Lowe, The Lambent Consultancy, Braishfield, UKThe Society for info reveal (SID) is a world society, which has the purpose of encouraging the improvement of all facets of the sphere of knowledge exhibit. Complementary to the goals of the society, the Wiley-SID sequence is meant to provide an explanation for the most recent advancements in info exhibit know-how at a certified point. The extensive scope of the sequence addresses all features of knowledge screens from technical elements via structures and prototypes to criteria and ergonomics.
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Additional resources for Liquid Crystal Displays: Fundamental Physics and Technology (Wiley Series in Display Technology)
It was an indisputable mathematical physics demonstration that an electromagnetic wave travels in space at the speed of light, and this led to the unavoidable conclusion that light is an electromagnetic wave. As the electromagnetic field, personified as it is by the space and time second derivatives of the electric and magnetic vectors, can travel through space, so action at a distance was possible through the medium-less vacuum of space, and thus the conundrum of the ineluctable electromagnetic æther was at last resolved, Maxwell did indeed smite the ævil witch.
The difference is that the earlier derivation used Gauss’ law, which holds true only for closed surfaces, and for the present derivation, the surface is not closed on itself, but merely defined by the wire (so there is no circle through the integral signs). The plane surface of the wire may not be closed, but the line of the wire is closed, and so the left-hand side of the second equation above is a so-called closed line integral. In electromagnetic theory, a closed line integral of an electric field vector describes the work done by an electric field pushing electric charges in the line integral to become an electric circulation.
Most optics textbooks introduce the phase difference purely in terms of the sinusoidal and complex exponential functions, but a physical understanding of phase difference requires a more physically intuitive approach, which will be presented in Chapter 4. M. Dirac once wrote that* Physical laws should have mathematical beauty. Are the Maxwell equations beautiful? Because “beauty” is often subjective and hardly immutable, a certain answer is clearly difficult. N. Yang, is The Beauty of Order and Symmetry (translated).