By Robin R. Preston, Thad E. Wilson
Lippincott’s Illustrated stories: Physiology brings body structure essentially into concentration. fresh to the LIR arsenal, it tells the tale of who we're, how we are living, and, eventually, how we die. through first deciding on organ functionality and then showing how cells and tissues are designed to satisfy that functionality, LIR Physiology decodes this self-discipline like no different textual content or overview e-book. every one point used to be adapted for ease of use and quick content material absorption, all combining to carry this tale to existence for readers. Visionary paintings, scientific purposes, and Unit assessment Questions train and strengthen the main crucial thoughts in physiology—perfect for school room studying and test/boards education!
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Additional resources for Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Physiology (1st Edition)
Vm ϭ membrane potential. 3 Na+ channels at a distant location open and relay the signal. 1 Na+ channels open, and the membrane spikes. Na+ channel Regenerative stimulus Passive current Axon Na+ channel 2 Current spreads passively down the axon. 12 Regenerative signal propagation in a neuron. indd 22 Neuronal signaling involves a number of sequential steps, including membrane excitation, action potential initiation, signal propagation, and recovery. 1. Excitation: Action potentials are typically initiated by sensory receptor potentials or dendritic postsynaptic potentials, for example.
ATP receptors are involved in taste transduction (see 10·II). 5/23/12 5:48:13 AM Chapter Summary C. 2). Ca2ϩ-gated channels are ubiquitous, opening any time intracellular Ca2ϩ levels rise, regardless of whether the source of Ca2ϩ is an intracellular store or the ECF via a voltage-gated Ca2ϩ channel. Other channels are activated by G proteins, cyclic nucleotides, IP3, and a number of additional messengers. D. Sensory channels Transient receptor-potential channels (TRPs) form a large and diverse group of channels that function as cellular sensors transducing temperature, taste, pain, and mechanical stress (cell swelling and shear stress), for example.
CA-II is a ubiquitous cytosolic isoform. CA-I is expressed at high levels in red blood cells, whereas CA-III is found primarily in muscle. CA-IV is a membrane-bound isoform that is expressed on the surface of pulmonary and renal epithelia, where it facilitates acid excretion. TO KIDNEY – HCO3– Volatile acid + HSO4– H2SO4 Cysteine Urea H2O TO KIDNEY Nonvolatile acid is buffered by HCO3– and excreted by the kidneys. 9 Excretion of volatile and nonvolatile acids. CA ϭ carbonic anhydrase. C. Acid handling Most acid is generated intracellularly at sites of active metabolism and then is transported in the vasculature to the lungs and kidneys for disposal.