By Pramod K. Gupta, Gayle A. Brazeau
Full of concepts to reduce the opposed results of injectable medications, this e-book presents the clinical heritage and strategies required to guage parenteral formulations with recognize to their strength to reason discomfort, inflammation, and muscle harm. utilizing a special, interdisciplinary strategy, the book's editors and members symbolize the parts of pharmaceutics, body structure, anatomy, toxicology, and product formula. The chapters hide subject matters similar to muscle harm with injectables, in vitro and in vivo cystolic enzyme free up, histological and morphological tools, assessing ache, cosolvents in injectables, biodegradable microparticles, and extra.
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Additional resources for Injectable Drug Development: Techniques to Reduce Pain and Irritation
Top 10 current technical issue in par enteral science revisited. Pharm. Tech. 21:126-135. Avis, K. E. 1992 The parenteral dosage form and its historical development. In Phar maceutical Dosage Forms: Parenteral Medications, vol. , edited by K. E. Avis, H. A. Oeberman, and L. Lachman. New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 1-15. Boylan, J, C, A. L. Fites, and S. L. Nail 1995. Parenteral products. In Modem phar maceutics, edited by G. S. Banker and C T. Rhodes. New York: Marcel Dekker. Duma, R. , M. J. Akers, and S.
L. Nail, and M. J. Groves. 1997. Top 10 current technical issue in par enteral science revisited. Pharm. Tech. 21:126-135. Avis, K. E. 1992 The parenteral dosage form and its historical development. In Phar maceutical Dosage Forms: Parenteral Medications, vol. , edited by K. E. Avis, H. A. Oeberman, and L. Lachman. New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 1-15. Boylan, J, C, A. L. Fites, and S. L. Nail 1995. Parenteral products. In Modem phar maceutics, edited by G. S. Banker and C T. Rhodes. New York: Marcel Dekker.
It is not surpris ing that the former hyperosmolar ionic X-ray contrast media evoke pain when injected rapidly in large volumes intravasally for phlebography or ar teriography. The new nonionic contrast agents were formulated in isoosmolar solutions, evoke local reactions with only low incidences, and have low systemic and organ-specific toxicity (Dawson 1996). 7 show osmolality and pH, respectively, for some anesthesia-related drug formulations known to evoke pain on injection. Some alternative formulations are included.