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By Martin P. Nilsson

"In the wide literature on the subject of historical Greece, there is not any paintings that serves the needs of this quantity. A Swedish proverb speaks of putting the church in the course of the village, and that's accurately what Nilsson has right here performed. Homer and Hesiod shaped the foundation of the conventional schooling of the Greeks generally, and the nice gods and goddesses as they seem in paintings convey invariably the formative impact of the epic culture. however, the challenging middle of Greek faith is to be present in its observances: those took their form between males whose concentration was once first the fireplace after which the city-state, males furthermore whose existence and livelihood have been tied to plants and herds and the once a year cycle of nature."—Arthur Darby Nock, from the ForewordMartin Nilsson writes concerning the renowned spiritual observances of the Greeks, as practiced either past within the 20th century and in classical instances, the rural fairs and customs, the rituals of family members and society. the folks religions of Greece that underlay and constantly erupted into the extra "elevated" Olympian mythology of Homer and Hesiod are defined intimately through a student with extraordinary figuring out of the rites and customs of rural lifestyles.

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10 To each of these two pairs a hero was added, and so we get two triads: Demeter, Kore, and Triptolemos; and "the God," "the Goddess," and Eubouleus. They are seen on an Attic relief found at Mondragone near Sinuessa in Italy, 11 with the addition of a seventh figure clad in a Dionysiac costumeboots and fawnskin. He is Iacchos. Iacchos is a personification of the Iacchic cry heard in the great procession which went from Athens to Eleusis in order to celebrate the Mysteries. The gay revels, the merry cries, and the light of the torches in this procession were reminiscent of the festivals of Dionysus, and the name of Iacchos suggested the second name of this god, Bacchos.

3 It is true that Christian authors do ascribe sexual symbols to the Eleusinian Mysteries, and it is possible that there were such symbols at Eleusis, as there were, for instance, in the closely related festival of the Thesmophoria. But if such symbols were used at Eleusis, they did not have the significance suggested above but the old one of fertility charms, as in the Thesmophoria and other ceremonies. Perhaps a remark is needed on the much-discussed formula 3 A. Dieterich, Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig, 1903), p.

Had they any firsthand knowledge? Had they themselves been initiated? Clement lived in Alexandria and the others in Asia or Africa. It is much more probable that what they related was only hearsay. Further, are they reliable? We should realize that their writings were polemics against the perversity of the heathens and that in polemics of this kind controversialists are not conscientious about the means they use if only they hit the mark. Ecclesiastical authors certainly did not trouble themselves much about truth and about such questions of fact as whether a given rite belonged to the Eleusinian or to some page_43 Page 44 other Mysteries, if only they could succeed in impressing upon their hearers or readers a sense of the contemptibility of the Mysteries.

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