By Michael T. Sheaff
Cytopathology: An Introduction is a succinct e-book which publications the trainee during the hurdles of early cytology perform and will even be used in the course of the occupation as an aide memoire by way of the more matured. With various illustrations to enthuse the reader and make cytological perform a extra relaxing and academic event, Cytopathology: An Introduction additionally highlights issues of diagnostic hassle, really with reference to the differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic disorder.
Each bankruptcy of Cytopathology: An Introduction starts off by way of detailing the most tools to be had applicable to the scientific scenario, through descriptions of the correct cytological appearances and diagnostic pitfalls. subject matters lined contain the mind and cerebrospinal fluid; pulmonary cytology; serous fluids; thyroid gland; lymph nodes; salivary glands; gastrointestinal and hepatopancreaticobiliary tracts; urinary tract and retroperitoneal cytology; woman genital tract; breast; tender tissue, bones and joints; and epidermis.
Cytopathology: An Introduction might be a useful reference consultant to histo- and cytopathology trainees, in addition to these getting ready for post-graduate examinations and specialists who desire a refresher. a short reference, concise yet particular, Cytopathology: An Introduction presents functional and priceless info at the salient cytological beneficial properties of any situation that can found in regimen cytopathology.
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Extra resources for Cytopathology: An Introduction
The differential diagnosis is similar with all of these lesions and focusses around difficulties differentiating between primary CNS tumors and lymphoma, leukemia, and a range of metastatic deposits. Other Conditions and Cell Types Intracranial hemorrhage may be confirmed on CSF cytology, although of course a traumatic or bloody tap needs to be considered. One useful tip is that traumatic taps will settle to leave a clear supernatant while genuine subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) produces a xanthochromia and spectroscopy may detect hemoglobin and/or bilirubin.
Several stains may aid visualization including PAS, Alcian Blue, and India ink. Rarely, air trapped beneath the coverslip looks refractile, and one should not be misled by this. Starch particles contaminating the sample may also appear similar, but the fungi do not have the Maltese cross of starch when polarized light is used. The India ink test is still used for detection of meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, but the cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) test has a higher sensitivity. Small spores and pseudohyphae of Candida are recognized in less than 50 % of cases of candidal meningitis.
Another possibility is an adamantinoma (craniopharyngioma) which will usually be located in the suprasellar region. Clues include a predominance of anucleate squames in craniopharyngioma with foreign bodytype giant cells and cholesterol crystals, although one may not be able to tell which of these possibilities is correct on cytology alone. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma can also present as a “cystic lesion” in the brain (Fig. 12). If just necrosis is present, one cannot be confident of the diagnosis, in particular exclusion of malignancy, and the sample should be considered nondiagnostic.