By Linda K. McLoon, Francisco Andrade
This publication is the main entire connection with date on craniofacial muscle improvement, constitution, functionality, and disorder. It info the state of the art easy technological know-how of the craniofacial muscle groups, and describes their detailed reaction to significant neuromuscular stipulations. most significantly, the textual content highlights how the craniofacial muscle groups are diverse from such a lot skeletal muscle groups, and why they've been considered as a unique allotype. additionally, the textual content issues to significant gaps in our wisdom approximately those vitally important skeletal muscle mass and pointed out key gaps in our wisdom and components primed for additional research and discovery.
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Extra resources for Craniofacial Muscles
Development 127:5355–5365 Grenier J, Teillet MA, Grifone R, Kelly RG, Duprez D (2009) Relationship between neural crest cells and cranial mesoderm during head muscle development. PLoS One 4:e4381 Grifone R, Kelly RG (2007) Heartening news for head muscle development. Trends Genet 23:365–369 Gros J, Manceau M, Thome V, Marcelle C (2005) A common somitic origin for embryonic muscle progenitors and satellite cells. Nature 435:954–958 Gustafsson MK, Pan H, Pinney DF, Liu Y, Lewandowski A, Epstein DJ, Emerson CP Jr (2002) Myf5 is a direct target of long-range Shh signaling and Gli regulation for muscle speciﬁcation.
K. McLoon et al. Fig. 4 Speciﬁcally with reference to the right eye, the photographs demonstrate (a) elevation and extortion, (b) elevation, (c) abduction, and (d) primary position of gaze. (a) To direct the gaze to look right, up and out, that is elevate and extort, the inferior oblique muscle of the right eye must contract. As the eyes move conjugately, the left eye must intort and elevate which is performed by the superior rectus muscle of the left eye. (b) To look directly overhead, without bending the neck, the superior rectus and inferior oblique muscles must co-contract.
Dev Biol 160:39–50 Porter JD, Khanna S, Kaminski HJ, Rao JS, Merriam AP, Richmonds CR, Leahy P, Li J, Andrade FH (2001) Extraocular muscle is deﬁned by a fundamentally distinct gene expression proﬁle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12062–12067 Prsa M, Dicke PW, Their P (2010) The absence of eye muscle fatigue indicates that the nervous system compensates for non-motor disturbances of oculomotor function. J Neurosci 30:15834–15842 Rossi AC, Mammucari C, Argentini C, Reggiani C, Schiafﬁno S (2010) Two novel/ancient myosins in mammalian skeletal muscles: MYH14/7b and MYH15 are expressed in extraocular muscles and muscle spindles.