This e-book provides bridge engineers transparent information on layout and comprises 88 info sheets of layout details, charts and payment lists.
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Additional info for Concrete Bridge Designer's Manual
Heavy lorries with weights significantly greater than 24 tonnes have now become commonplace, but the regulations governing the design and operation of commercial vehicles are so designed that equivalent effects are not exceeded because these greater weights are spread over large axle spacings and gross areas. In addition to the overall restriction on vehicle weights, limitations are placed on the maximum single wheel and axle loads. The design loading incorporates a 25% allowance for impact on these local loadings which is regarded as adequate in the light of suspension systems current in the UK.
A deep concrete parapet can offset this, particularly if the parapet is continued as a distinctive element along the full length of the wing-walls as well as over the span. On the other hand, if a three-span or four-span bridge is required over a motorway to carry a local road, with consequent light loading, it would seem inappropriate to introduce heavy concrete parapets onto a structure which would otherwise be slender. Because it is very important to the finished appearance of a bridge, the parapet and its supporting upstand merit particular attention during detailing.
Shrinkage of the concrete (see Data Sheet 58). Creep in the concrete (see Data Sheet 58). Elastic shortening under prestress. Displacements of the structure under load. Because expansion joints are installed at a late stage in construction some of these movements will already have taken place, and less total movement has to be catered for than in bearings at the same location. Elastic shortening under prestress is normally assessed on the mean stress induced in the deck section by the prestress.