Download Collected Papers II: Studies in Social Theory by Alfred Schutz (auth.), Arvid Brodersen (eds.) PDF

By Alfred Schutz (auth.), Arvid Brodersen (eds.)

Elsewhere 1 we have been all for basic features of the query how guy can understand his fellow-men. We analyzed man's subjective reviews of the opposite and located in them the root for his realizing of the Other's subjective methods of cognizance. The very assumption of the lifestyles of the opposite, notwithstanding, introduces the size of intersub­ jectivity. the realm is skilled by way of the Self as being inhabited by way of different Selves, as being an international for others and of others. As we had celebration to indicate, intersubjective truth is under no circumstances homogeneous. The social global during which guy unearths himself indicates a fancy constitution; fellow-men seem to the Self lower than diversified facets, to which correspond assorted cognitive types wherein the Self perceives and apprehends the Other's strategies, reasons, and activities. within the current research it will likely be our major job to explain the foundation of the differentiated buildings of social fact in addition to to bare the rules underlying its harmony and coherence. It has to be under pressure that cautious description of the methods which allow one guy to appreciate another's suggestions and activities is a prerequisite for the technique of the empirical social sciences. The query how a systematic interpretation of human motion is feasible should be resolved provided that an sufficient • From: De, sinnha/te A II/ball tler sowuen WeU, Vienna, 1932; 2d ed. 1960 (Sektion IV: Strukturanalyse der Sozialwelt, Soziale Umwelt, Mitwelt, Vorwelt, English variation by means of Professor Thomas Luckmann.

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2) The contemporary as an ideal type and the they-relation Whereas I experience fellow-men directly in the temporal and spatial immediacy of a face-to-face situation, this immediacy is lacking in my experience of mere contemporaries. Contemporaries are not present in person, but I do know ot their co-existence with me in time: I know that the flux of their experiences is simultaneous with mine. This knowledge, however, is necessarily indirect. Hence, the contemporary is not a Thou in the pregnant sense that this term has in a We-relation.

The retrospective grasp of past common experiences may be clear and distinct or confused and unsharp. The more I am involved in reflecting upon the common experience, the less directly do I live it and the remoter is the living, concrete human being who is my partner in the We-relation. The fellow-man whom I experience directly while I am busily engaged in our common experience becomes a mere object of my thought as I begin to reflect about us. 2) Social relations in the face-to-face situation The foregoing description of the pure We-relation will provide a useful basis for the analysis of the We-relation as a concrete social relation in face-to-face situations.

Whereas I experience the individual Thou directly in the concrete Werelation, I apprehend the contemporary only mediately, by means of typifications. In order to clarify this point we shall investigate various kinds of such mediating typifications by which I apprehend a contemporary. One way by which my experience of contemporaries can become constituted is by derivation from previous immediate experiences of contemporaries in face-to-face situations. We have already investigated this mode of constitution and found that the knowledge gained directly of a fellow-man in a We-relation is maintained as valid - until further notice - even after the fellowman moved out of the face-to-face situation.

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