By Mark Monmonier
Within the subsequent century, sea degrees are expected to upward push at unheard of charges, inflicting flooding world wide, from the islands of Malaysia and the canals of Venice to the coasts of Florida and California. those emerging water degrees pose critical demanding situations to all features of coastal existence—chiefly monetary, residential, and environmental—as good as to the cartographic definition and mapping of coasts. it truly is this part of coastal existence that Mark Monmonier tackles in Coast strains. atmosphere sail on a trip throughout transferring landscapes, cartographic expertise, and weather swap, Monmonier finds that coastlines are as a lot a collection of rules, assumptions, and societal ideals as they're reliable black traces on maps.Whether for crusing charts or estate maps, Monmonier exhibits, coastlines problem mapmakers to catch on paper a hugely abnormal land-water boundary perturbed by means of tides and storms and intricate by way of rocks, wrecks, and shoals. Coast strains is peppered with desirable anecdotes in regards to the complicated attempt to expunge fictitious islands from nautical charts, the tough dimension of a coastline’s size, and the contentious notions of beachfront estate and public access.Combing maritime heritage and the heritage of expertise, Coast traces charts the historic development from offshore sketches to satellite tv for pc pictures and explores the societal influence of coastal cartography on every thing from international warming to place of origin protection. Returning to the shape of his celebrated Air obvious, Monmonier ably renders the subject of coastal cartography available to either normal readers and historians of technology, expertise, and maritime reports. within the post-Katrina period, whilst the map of complete areas will be redrawn by way of a unmarried ordinary occasion, the problems he increases are extra vital than ever.
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Additional resources for Coast Lines: How Mapmakers Frame the World and Chart Environmental Change
It’s also dangerous to assume that the mean sea level used as a fi xed vertical reference for most topographic maps published since the 1930s is the same as today’s mean sea level, which reflects the cumulative effects of rising seas and coastal subsidence, occasionally hastened by withdrawal of underground oil and natural gas. This naiveté proved particularly devastating for New Orleans in 2005, when levees along the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal failed during Hurricane Katrina. 28 Subtle differences between American charts and those of other nations arise as well, for example, where bridges or power lines span navigable waterways.
4 Eager for acceptance, Fine, Waldseemüller, and their contemporaries mixed decoration and delineation. ” 5 30 CHAPTER 3 Waldseemüller’s 1507 opus demonstrates the persuasive power of maps that are widely distributed and prominently displayed. Even if the thousand-copy estimate of its circulation is only half correct, as the first printed map of the New World it was the cartographic bestseller of its day. Formatted for public display, it gained the attention of other mapmakers, who mimicked its coastlines and place names.
Because tide tables are an indispensable adjunct to large-scale nautical charts, hydrographic agencies have assumed responsibility for tide prediction, which requires precise measurement of water level throughout the day over many years as well as a theoretically 18 CHAPTER 2 sound, computationally practicable method for projecting tidal behavior a year or two into the future. 11 Isaac Newton laid out the physics of tidal forces in his Principia Mathematica, published in 1686. Two centuries later William Thompson translated Newton’s theory into a computational breakthrough of nearly equal significance to hydrographers.