By Stephen Goldberg
A short, to-the-point presentation of an important issues in medical body structure. permits the reader to determine cardio-pulmonary-renal body structure in addition to immunology and different parts as a transparent conceptual entire.
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Extra resources for Clinical Physiology Made Ridiculously Simple (2nd Edition)
Drugs that nonselectively antagonize both beta-l and beta-2 receptors incur the risk of inducing bronchospasm and vasospasm, because beta-2 stimulation is important in maintaining broncho-and vasodilation (See Fig. 2-5). Such nonselective drugs must be avoided where possible in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) because they may induce additional bronchospasm. Vasospasm caused by the beta-2 blockade can sometimes be severe enough to cause gangrene in patients who already have peripheral vascular disease.
The body tries to maintain a con· stant pH, so the ratio of HC03 ~ to dissolved C~ (carbonic acid) remains at about 20;1. H-protein (weak acid) H H-t + protcin- (conjugate weak base) The buffering relations in the bicarbonate system are described quantitatively in the Henderson-Hasselbach When Things Go Wrong As we have seen. the body's buffer system, plus ac- equation: Recalling the reaction: C~ + H2O H H· + RCO:! ,the Henderson-Hasselbach equation states: tions of the lungs and lOOney, help maintain blood pH in the normal range.
CHAPTER 3. ELECTROLYTES AND ACID·BASED METABOLISM • •• •" • Chromium enhances the effect of insulin. Deficiency results in defective glucose metabolism. Excess occurs in chronic inhalation of chromium dust and may lead to carcinoma of the lung. •• Cobalt is part of the vitamin Bl2 molecule. Excess may result in gastrointestinal distress and neurologic and cardiac dysfunction. ~x " I , , ,t A i ,"•• " Manganese is needed to activate a variety of en· zymes:, including enzymes involved in the synthesis of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and oligosaccharides.