By Mikko E. Waltari
This helpful monograph offers a complete of 7 prototypes: double-sampled S/H circuits, a time-interleaved ADC, an IF-sampling self-calibrated pipelined ADC, a present guidance DAC with a deglitcher, and pipelined ADCs utilising the SO options.
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Extra info for Circuit techniques for low-voltage and high-speed A/D converters
The inverse of conductivity Chapter 2. The substrate and adding material to it 25 is electrical resistivity ȡ. Typical units of conductivity and resistivity are (ȍ·m)-1 and ȍ·m, respectively. 1. Resistivity also exhibits a temperature dependence which is exploited in some MEMS temperature sensors. 1. 5×1017 Conductivity or resistivity can be used to calculate the electrical resistance for a given chuck of that material. For the geometry shown in Fig. 1) L . A The trends of Eq. 1) should make intuitive sense.
1 Growing an oxide layer One method of adding a layer of material to the silicon substrate is to “grow” a layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on it. The process is naturally called oxidation. In oxidation, the silicon on the surface of the substrate reacts with oxygen in the environment to form the SiO2 layer. The resulting SiO2 layer is often called an oxide layer for short, or simply oxide. It does a great job as a sacrificial layer or as a hard mask. Oxides can also provide a layer of electrical insulation on the substrate, providing necessary electrical isolation for certain electrical parts in a MEMS.
Turbopumps operate by imparting momentum towards the pump outlet to trapped gas molecules. In such a pump a gas molecule will randomly enter the turbo pump and be trapped between a rotor and a stator. When the gas molecule eventually hits the spinning underside of the rotor, the rotor imparts momentum to the gas molecule, which then heads towards the exhaust. Diffusion pumps entrain gas molecules using a jet stream of hot oil. In diffusion pumps the downward moving oil jet basically knocks air molecules away from the vacuum chamber.