By Yoshinori Asakawa, Agnieszka Ludwiczuk, Fumihiro Nagashima, A. Douglas Kinghorn, Heinz Falk, Junichi Kobayashi
For a few 50 years, Professor Asakawa and his crew have centred their learn at the chemical parts of bryophytes and feature discovered that those crops include huge numbers of secondary metabolites, comparable to terpenoids, acetogenins, and fragrant compounds consultant of many new skeletons, which show attention-grabbing organic actions. person terpenoids, while came upon as components of either a bryophyte and a better plant, are likely to ensue in several enantiomeric kinds. Professor Asakawa has coated the literature on bryophytes in past volumes of Progress within the Chemistry of natural normal Products, particularly, Volumes forty two (1982) and sixty five (1995). because the ebook of the latter quantity, loads of new info has seemed on bryophytes. One instance is that identified intercourse pheromones of algae were came upon in liverworts, indicating that a few individuals of the latter taxonomic staff may possibly originate from brown algae. From info supplied during this quantity, it is recommended that orders of the Marchantiophyta can be mixed.
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Additional info for Chemical Constituents of Bryophytes: Bio- and Chemical Diversity, Biological Activity, and Chemosystematics
One of the Costa Rican specimens produced 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1,6-olide (29) as the principal component. 1 Monoterpenoids 37 (19), p-cymene (21), b-phellandrene (27), and ascaridole (39), of which limonene (19) and ascaridole (39) were the most abundant. Older specimens of P. rutilans from Cuba and Ecuador were also analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which indicated that the major components of the former specimen were menthone (31) and p-cymen-8-ol (22), and for the latter specimen, pulegone (28) was obtained (693).
In Asia including Japan, a relatively large number of endemic genera (21) have been recorded, but Europe, North America, and Africa including Madagascar are quite poor regions for endemic genera. The richness of the endemic genera of bryophytes in the southern hemisphere suggests that the bryophytes might have originated in the past from what is now Antarctica some 350,000,000 years ago and then they were introduced to the northern hemisphere during a long-range evolutionary process. In Japan, Yaku Island is considered an important place to locate bryophyte species.
Mainland China (genera/species: 409/1,835), Taiwan (278/835), Indochina (249/ 953), West Malaysia and Singapore (145/466), Sulawesi (144/340), Java (204/566), Sumatra (8,163/489), Borneo (190/673), Papua New Guinea (263/918), the Lesser Sunda Islands (162/368) and the Philippines (246/743) are also rich in mosses (473). 2 Biodiversity of Bryophytes 19 In tropical regions such as Borneo, Sumatra, and Papua New Guinea, there are rain forests where many liverwort species have been found. However, different species like those in the Lejeuneaceae family are intermingled with one another, so it is time-consuming work to adequately separate and document these.