By Jay D. Humphrey
The power of the cardiovascular process, which is composed of the guts, vas culature, and blood, is determined by its reaction to a number of advanced stimuli, together with organic, chemical, electric, mechanical, and thermal. the point of interest of this publication, besides the fact that, is at the reaction of the center and arteries to mechanical a lot from the viewpoint of nonlinear sturdy mechanics. via my very own examine during this box, i've got come to achieve that research ing the advanced responses of cardiovascular cells, tissues, and organs nec essarily calls for a mixed theoretical, experimental, and computational method. idea is required to steer the functionality and interpretation of experiments in addition to to synthesize the consequences; test is required to check the responses of the approach to well-controlled quite a bit and to check can didate hypotheses and theories; and because of the geometric and fabric non linearities inherent to cardiovascular mechanics, computation is required to research info in addition to to resolve boundary and preliminary worth difficulties that correspond to both experimental or in vivo stipulations. one of many fundamental objectives of this ebook is to introduce jointly easy analytical, experimental, and computational tools and to demonstrate how those equipment can and has to be built-in to realize a extra whole realizing of the bio mechanics of the guts and vasculature. regardless of the point of interest on cardiovascu lar mechanics, the basic tools, certainly the various particular effects, are in most cases appropriate to many alternative tender tissues.
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Extra info for Cardiovascular Solid Mechanics: Cells, Tissues, and Organs
Growth factors, for example, are special proteins that bind to specific receptors on the cell membrane and encourage cell division. According to Gooch et al (1998), Growth factors can stimulate or inhibit cell division, differentiation, and migration. They up- or downregulate cellular processes such as gene expression, DNA and protein synthesis, and autocrine and paracrine factor expression. [They] ... can interact with one another in an additive, cooperative, synergistic, or antagonistic manner.
This is not surprising, of course, given the incredible complexity of tissue structure and interactions, some of which was reviewed in the previous section. Nevertheless, it is of some utility to review briefly the behavior of the two key structural proteins: elastin and type I collagen. Repeated subscripts in this equation imply summation per the Einstein summation convention, which is discussed in Chapter 2. The most important observation here is that Fung hypothesized that W was exponential in Q and that Q was quadratic in terms of the Green strains.
One approach is to remove selectively the unwanted constituents prior to testing. In the case of elastin, there are two basic ways this has been attempted: one can use collagenases to digest any collagen in the tissue sample or one can exploit the thermal stability of elastin. Among others, Lillie et al (1994) chose the latter based on prior studies that suggest that collagenases may affect the structure of elastin. , degrade) the collagen (45%) and kill the smooth muscle (25%). In comparison to elastin, which contains extensive desmosine cross-links, collagen is certainly much easier to denature thermally since one only needs to lyse the hydrogen bonds that stabilize the triple helix.