By Qinwen Fan, Kofi A. A. Makinwa, Johan H. Huijsing
This publication describes the idea that and layout of the capacitively-coupled chopper procedure, which might be utilized in precision analog amplifiers. Readers will learn how to layout power-efficient amplifiers making use of this method, which might be powered via typical low provide voltage reminiscent of 2V and probably having a +/-100V enter common-mode voltage enter. The authors offer either simple layout recommendations and distinct layout examples, which hide the world of either operational and instrumentation amplifiers for a number of purposes, fairly in strength administration and biomedical circuit designs.
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Extra resources for Capacitively-Coupled Chopper Amplifiers
A. A. Makinwa, “A current-feedback instrumentation ampliﬁer with 5 µV offset for bidirectional high-side current-sensing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. , 2008. 6. T. Denison, K. Consoer,W. ,“A 2 µW 100nV/√Hz Chopper Stabilized Instrumentation Ampliﬁer for Chronic Measurement of Neural Field Potentials,” IEEE JSSC, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. , 2007. 7. R. P. Areny and J. G. Webster, “AC instrumentation ampliﬁer for bioimpedance measurements,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. , vol. 8, pp. , 1993.
Harpe, K. A. A. Makinwa and C. Van Hoof, “A 160 µW 8-channel active electrode system for EEG monitoring,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, vol. 5, iss. 6, pp. 555–567, Dec. 2011. 14. F. Michel and M. 13 μm CMOS,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. papers, pp. 372–374, Feb. 2012. 15. R. F. Yazicioglu, P. Merken, R. Puers and C. Van Hoof, “A 60 µW60 nV√Hz readout frontend for portable biopotential acquisition systems,” IEEE J. State Circuits, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1100–1110, May 2007. 16. M.
6 Schematic of the input floating chopper stage Gm1 employs a simple PMOS differential pair, which is biased in weak inversion. Gm2 employs a folded-cascode topology. The schematic of Gm1 and Gm2 are shown in Fig. 7. It can be seen that the input stage of the common-mode feedback (CMFB) circuit of Gm1 is taken from the input stage of Gm2 rather than directly from the output of Gm1. This is because the offset of Gm2 (Vos2) will be chopped by CHout and will appear as a square wave over the parasitic capacitor Cp21–3.