By Johann C. Rüegg
Recent years have witnessed an explosion of information lea- ding to a molecular realizing of the mechanisms of ac- tion of calcium on excitation and contraction coupling and its position within the law of contractility. This ebook highlights the newest growth in addition to supplying a historial standpoint of the sector. It offers a concise and finished evaluate of our present wisdom regar- ding calcium channels and regulatory proteins in addition to in- tracellular calcium dealing with and the mechanisms underlying the activation of contractile proteins. It additionally describes how those easy mechanisms were tailored in numerous kinds of muscle, in particular in cardiac and tender muscle.
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Extra resources for Calcium in Muscle Contraction: Cellular and Molecular Physiology
F. Huxley and Taylor (1958) the muscle membrane was stimulated with weak current pulses at sensitive spots near the openings of the T-tubules, and the resulting membrane depolarization spread along the T -tubules in an electrotonic and decremental manner into the fibre interior. Since the contraction offibrils depended on the extent of membrane depolarization (cf. 1), the innermost myofibrils of the fibre contracted very weakly or not at all, while the fibrils just below the surface membrane contracted strongly.
Huxley 1964). These findings also show that the membranes of the T-tubular system may indeed be regarded as an extension ofthe cell membrane, a structural feature of considerable functional significance, since it allows the rapid spread of excitation from the outer membrane to the T -tubules; this feature also accounts for the unusually high membrane capacity of the muscle cell membrane (Hodgkin and Nakajima 1972). According to Peachey (1981), about 30% ofthe transverse system may consist of small circular elements which do not form junctions with the sarcoplasmic reticulum, while the remaining 60% to 70% of tubules are junctional.
2 of Kress et al. 1986) 19 1965). Similar arrowheads are formed when isolated thin filaments are "decorated" with isolated subfragment S-1 particles in vitro and in the absence of magnesium-ATP. In relaxed muscle, on the other hand, crossbridges exhibit a more random position, indicating that they are probably not attached to actin. 2 The Mechanism of Force Generation From the structural studies just mentioned, as weIl as from studying muscle mechanics, a picture ofthe contractile process emerges (A.