By Linda S. Costanzo
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Written by means of very popular body structure professor Linda S. Costanzo, this revised 5th version offers an outstanding body structure overview for college students getting ready for the USMLE Step 1. The publication concisely covers key body structure ideas and contains medical correlations to stress connections among body structure and scientific medicine.
* NEW! Full-color layout, circulate charts, illustrations, and tables that summarize info for handy review
* each one bankruptcy is written within the well known Board assessment Series (BRS) define layout and contours bolded keywords to streamline your study
* Over 350 USMLE-style questions, solutions, and rationales either electronically and in print toughen your body structure review
* A FREE spouse web site deals an internet book and an interactive query financial institution with all of the questions from the publication so that you can customise your assessment tests!
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Additional resources for BRS Physiology (5th Edition) (Board Review Series)
The answer is B [II A]. Flux is proportional to the concentration difference across the membrane, J = –PA (CA – CB). Originally, CA – CB = 10 mM – 5 mM = 5 mM. When the urea concentration was doubled in solution A, the concentration difference became 20 mM – 5 mM = 15 mM, or three times the original difference. Therefore, the flux would also triple. Note that the negative sign preceding the equation is ignored if the lower concentration is subtracted from the higher concentration. 12. The answer is D [IV B 3 a, b].
COMPARISON OF SKELETAL MUSCLE, SMOOTH MUSCLE, AND CARDIAC MUSCLE ■ ■ Table 1-3 compares the ionic basis for the action potential and mechanism of contraction in skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle is discussed in Chapter 3. t a b l e 1-3 Comparison of Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac Muscle Feature Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle Appearance Upstroke of action potential Striated Inward Na+ current No striations Inward Ca2+ current Plateau No No Duration of action potential ~1 msec ~10 msec Excitation–contraction coupling Action potential → T tubules Action potential opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in cell membrane Striated Inward Ca2+ current (SA node) Inward Na+ current (atria, ventricles, Purkinje fibers) No (SA node) Yes (atria, ventricles, Purkinje fibers; due to inward Ca2+ current) 150 msec (SA node, atria) 250–300 msec (ventricles and Purkinje fibers) Inward Ca2+ current during plateau of action potential Ca2+ released from nearby SR ↑ [Ca2+]i Molecular basis for contraction Ca2+–troponin C Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from SR Hormones and transmitters open IP3 – gated Ca2+ channels in SR ↑ [Ca2+]i Ca2+–calmodulin ↑ myosin light-chain kinase Ca2+–troponin C IP3 = inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate; SA = sinoatrial; SR = sarcoplasmic reticulum.
1. Thick filaments ■ ■ are present in the A band in the center of the sarcomere. contain myosin. 98761_Ch01 5/7/10 6:38 PM Page 17 Chapter 1 Cell Physiology A Motoneuron Sarcomere 17 Muscle I band I band Thin filament Thick filament Myofibril Z line M line Z line H band A band B Transverse tubules Sarcolemmal membrane Terminal cisternae Sarcoplasmic reticulum FIGURE 1-11 Structure of the sarcomere in skeletal muscle. A. Arrangement of thick and thin filaments. B. Transverse tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum.