Download BRS Physiology by Linda S. Costanzo PhD PDF

By Linda S. Costanzo PhD

Be prepared—for the path and the Boards—with BRS body structure, 6th Edition. 

This bestselling ebook presents over 350 USMLE-style questions with entire solutions and factors, chapter-ending tests and a complete USMLE-format exam on the finish of the publication, and is more suitable via full-color illustrations and tables.   

Offered in either print and on-line codecs, the e-book boosts self belief and offers greatest accessibility and portability for in-class or on-the-go learning. 


 • Maximize learn time with the Board assessment sequence speedy experiment define format.
 • Prepare for the forums with greater than 350 USMLE-style questions and answers.
 • Master middle subject matters proven at the USMLE Step 1 examination with targeted insurance of Key body structure subject matters and Key body structure Equations.
 • See the relationship among body structure and medical drugs via medical correlations.
 • Practice for the board exam utilizing the great end-of-book exam.
 • Master key evidence and data with the book’s full-color layout, movement charts, illustrations, and tables that summarize details for handy review.
 • Online interactive quiz financial institution that incorporates the entire book’s questions for limitless practice.

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Example text

34. The answer is C [VII B]. The steps that produce contraction in smooth muscle occur in the following order: various mechanisms that raise intracellular Ca2+ concentration, including depolarization of the sarcolemmal membrane, which opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and opening of ligand-gated Ca2+ channels; Ca2+-induced Ca2+ released from SR; increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration; binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin; increased myosin-lightchain kinase; phosphorylation of myosin; binding of myosin to actin; cross-bridge cycling, which produces contraction 35.

Rigor). b. ATP then binds to myosin (B) producing a conformational change in myosin that causes myosin to be released from actin. c. Myosin is displaced toward the plus end of actin. There is hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi). ADP remains attached to myosin (C) d. Myosin attaches to a new site on actin, which constitutes the power (force-generating) stroke (D) ADP is then released, returning myosin to its rigor state. e. The cycle repeats as long as Ca2+ is bound to troponin C.

Cardiac muscle is discussed in Chapter 3. 3 Comparison of Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac Muscles Feature Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle Appearance Striated No striations Striated + Upstroke of action potential Inward Na current Inward Ca current Inward Ca2+ current (SA node) Inward Na+ current (atria, ventricles, Purkinje fibers) Plateau No No No (SA node) Yes (atria, ventricles, Purkinje fibers; due to inward Ca2+ current) Duration of action potential ~1 msec ~10 msec 150 msec (SA node, atria) 250–300 msec (ventricles and Purkinje fibers) Excitation– contraction coupling Action potential → T tubules Action potential opens voltagegated Ca2+ channels in cell membrane Inward Ca2+ current during plateau of action potential Molecular basis for contraction Ca2+ released from nearby SR ↑ [Ca2+]i Ca2+–troponin C 2+ Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from SR Hormones and transmitters open IP3-gated Ca2+ channels in SR ↑ [Ca2+]i Ca2+–calmodulin ↑ myosin-lightchain kinase Ca2+–troponin C IP3 = inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate; SA = sinoatrial; SR = sarcoplasmic reticulum.

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