Download Beyond Testing:: Towards a Theory of Educational Assessment by Caroline Gipps PDF

By Caroline Gipps

Evaluate has been constructing at a speedy price in the course of the Nineties, and concerns surrounding this improvement were tested and re-thought through quite a few key researchers. exam of the technical problems with the influence of evaluate on curriculum and instructing, and the connection with studying criterion and instructor and function review is supplied during this publication. through drawing jointly analyses, it deals a framework for tutorial evaluation.

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However, since all candidates must be presented with tasks which they can do, the result is that differentiated papers are required in order to cope with the whole ability range. Owing to the need to allocate pupils to particular examination paths, and the consequent limit on grades which results, differentiation has in itself implications for motivation (for a discussion of differentiation in the GCSE see Gipps and Stobart, 1993, chapter 7). Another element of the GCSE which was 43 Beyond Testing: towards a theory of educational assessment designed to enhance motivation was the emphasis on coursework assessment.

It includes a variety of self-awareness processes to help plan, monitor, orchestrate and control one’s own learning. It is a process of being aware of and in control of one’s own knowledge and thinking, and therefore learning (following Flavell’s 1976 definition). Such learners control their learning using particular strategies which hinge on self-questioning in order to get the purpose of learning clear, searching for connections and conflicts with what is already known, creating images, and judging whether understanding of the material is sufficient for the task.

Cognitive theory suggests that learning is a process of knowledge construction; that learning is knowledge-dependent; and that learning is 21 Beyond Testing: towards a theory of educational assessment tuned to the situation in which it takes place. Learning occurs, not by recording information but by interpreting it so that instruction must be seen not as direct transfer of knowledge but as an intervention in an ongoing knowledge construction process (Resnick, 1989). Thus in constructivist learning theory students learn best by actively making sense of new knowledge—making meaning from it and mapping it in to their existing knowledge map/schema.

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