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By Robert W. Schrier

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Luft FC, Weinberger MH, Grim CE: Sodium sensitivity and resistance in normotensive humans. Am J Med 1982, 72:726–736. 13. Barajas L: Architecture of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. In Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment. Edited by Laragh JH, Brenner BM. New York: Raven Press; 1990:XX–XX. 4. Guyton AC: Blood pressure control: special role of the kidneys and body fluids. Science 1991, 252:1813–1816. 5. Lassiter WE: Regulation of sodium chloride distribution within the extracellular space.

Zimmerman E, Robertson AG: Hypothalamic neurons secreting vasopressin and neurophysin. Kidney Int 1976, 10(1):12. 7. Bichet DG: Nephrogenic and central diabetes insipidus. In Diseases of the Kidney, edn. 6. Edited by Schrier RW, Gottschalk CW. , 1997:2430 8. Bichet DG : Vasopressin receptors in health and disease. Kidney Int 1996, 49:1706. 9. Dunn FL, Brennan TJ, Nelson AE, Robertson GL: The role of blood osmolality and volume in regulating vasopressin secretion in the rat. J Clin Invest 1973, 52:3212.

13 LABORATORY SIGNS OF VOLUME DEPLETION OR EXPANSION Hypernatremia Hyponatremia Acid-base disturbances Abnormal plasma potassium Decrease in glomerular filtration rate Elevated blood urea nitrogen–creatinine ratio Low functional excretion of sodium (FENa) FIGURE 2-24 Note that laboratory test results for volume expansion and contraction are similar. Serum sodium (Na) concentration may be increased or decreased in either volume expansion or contraction, depending on the cause and intake of free water (see Chapter 1).

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