By Robert W. Schrier
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13 LABORATORY SIGNS OF VOLUME DEPLETION OR EXPANSION Hypernatremia Hyponatremia Acid-base disturbances Abnormal plasma potassium Decrease in glomerular filtration rate Elevated blood urea nitrogen–creatinine ratio Low functional excretion of sodium (FENa) FIGURE 2-24 Note that laboratory test results for volume expansion and contraction are similar. Serum sodium (Na) concentration may be increased or decreased in either volume expansion or contraction, depending on the cause and intake of free water (see Chapter 1).