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Extra resources for Assessment of Planetary Prot. Rqmts. for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar Syst. Bodies - NRC

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6. K. Takai, K. Toki, U. Tsunogal, M. Miyazaki, J. Miayazaki, H. Hirayama, S. Nakagawa, T. Nunouri, and K. Horikoshi, Cell proliferation at 122°C and isotopically heavy CH4 production by hyperthermophilic methanogen under high-pressure cultivation, Proceedings National Academy of Sciences USA 105:10949-10954, 2008. 7. W. Deming and H. Eicken, Life in ice, pp. D. A. ), Cambridge University Press, New York, 2007. 8. H. Nealson and R. H. ), Elsevier Press, Amsterdam, 2004. 9. W. , Hydrogen peroxide on the surface of Europa, Science 283:2062-2064, 1999.

Localized melting of ice by a radioisotope power system (RPS) is not likely to present a serious concern for future missions to the outer solar system. 11 In addition for the need to seal the heat source within Europa’s ice so as to raise the vapor pressure to a sufficiently high value to initiate melting, the study revealed the critical power needed if any melting was to take place at all. 6kW thermal input did not provide enough energy to raise the ice temperature (−170°C) sufficiently to initiate melt.

In lava lakes, the subsurface melt conduit is hydraulically connected to the surface melt, so that decreases in pressure can result in a reversal of flow from the lake into the subsurface. There is no evidence that lava that has traveled downhill from a source vent could ever drain back to the interior. No features on icy bodies have been interpreted as cryolava lakes. It is possible that cryolava lakes do not form on icy bodies because the negative buoyancy of cryomagmas within icy crusts precludes the establishment of a stable lava lake.

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