Download Applied Water Technology by dr charles c patton PDF

By dr charles c patton

364 pages. desk of Contents:
Fundamentals of Chemistry
Water Sampling and Analysis
Water shaped Scales
Corrosion Control
Water remedy Microbiology
Water Processing Equipment
Water Injection Systems
Water remedy for more suitable Oil restoration

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In multicrystalline silicon, extended defects like grain boundaries and dislocations offer preferred sites for precipitation of metallic impurities. Electrical activity of these defects is known to be strongly dependent on impurities [25], [26]. High temperature annealing is needed in order to release significant amount of these precipitated impurities. After cooling down to 7000C, however, many released lifetime killers still have a significant diffusion velocity and gettering may take place assisted by a large segregation coefficient between phosphorous doped emitter and moderately boron doped bulk.

52 Experimental evidence of the described gettering process is shown in Figures 28 and 29. Lifetim e distribution 400 A1 Initial lifetime 300 Counts A2 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Lifetim e (us) 70 80 90 100 Figure 28 Distribution of measured lifetime values in class A mc-Si wafers; a) after emitter diffusion ( A1 ) b) in as –grown wafer ( Initial lifetime ) and c) emitter diffusion followed by 14 hours heat treatment at 7000C ( A2 ). Lifetim e distribution 400 B1 Counts 300 Initial lifetime B2 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Lifetime ( us) Figure 29 53 70 80 90 100 Distribution of measured lifetime values in class B mc-Si wafers; a) after emitter diffusion ( B1 ) b) in as –grown wafer ( Initial lifetime ) and c) emitter diffusion followed by 14 hours heat treatment at 7000C ( B2 ) Similar trends can be seen in Figures 28 and 29 .

The following recipe has been used at the Electron Physics Laboratory. 5 l DI-water 70 ml HF (aqueous 50%) RT / 30s DI water rinse 10min RCA 2: 6,2 l DI water 1,1 l HCl 1,1 l H2O2 800C / 15min DI water rinse 10min RCA 1 clean removes organic contamination and dissolves particles by chemical oxidation of the silicon. It is important to remove any organic contamination in the beginning of the cleaning cycle, because some types of organic contamination cause incomplete oxidation of silicon and therefore lead to partial contamination.

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