By Larry Bauer
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Additional info for Applied Clinical Pharmacokinetics
The central compartment (1) is composed of blood and tissues which equilibrate rapidly with blood. The peripheral compartment (2) represents tissues that equilibrate slowly with blood. Rate constants (k12, k21) represent the transfer between compartments and elimination from the body (k10). 4,5 In this case, drug serum concentrations are not obtained in a patient until after the distribution phase is over. Intravenous Bolus Equation When a drug is given as an intravenous bolus and the drug distributes from the blood into the tissues quickly, the serum concentrations often decline in a straight line when plotted on semilogarithmic axes (Figure 2-2).
Distribution c. metabolism d. elimination e. steady state f. linear or ﬁrst-order pharmacokinetics g. nonlinear pharmacokinetics h. saturable or Michaelis-Menten pharmacokinetics i. autoinduction j. therapeutic range k. zero-order pharmacokinetics l. bioavailability m. bioequivalent n. clearance o. volume of distribution p. half-life q. elimination rate constant 24 1 / CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC CONCEPTS 2. Two new antibiotics are marketed by a pharmaceutical manufacture. 5 500 75 190 1000 150 510 What type of pharmacokinetics do each of these drugs follow?
1978;13:373–378. 2 CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETIC EQUATIONS AND CALCULATIONS INTRODUCTION Clinical pharmacokinetic dosage calculations are conducted using the easiest possible equations and methods. This is because there are usually only a few (sometimes as little as 1–2) drug serum concentrations on which to base the calculations. Drug serum concentrations are expensive (typically $25–75 each), and obtaining them can cause minor discomfort and trauma to the patient. This situation is much different than that found in pharmacokinetic research studies where there may be 10–15 drug serum concentrations used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters, and more complex equations can be used to describe the pharmacokinetics of the drug.