By Michael Frank Hordeski
Revised and up-to-date, Alternative Fuels addresses a few of the components affecting our strength use, together with the supply and desirability of assorted fuels—especially using hydrogen. This re-creation covers new hydrogen advancements in expertise, oil offers and new drilling innovations, most up-to-date info on hydrogen road tasks, breakthroughs in gas telephone know-how and extremely low emissions in transportation, the most recent information on rising oil markets, strength reserves, and carbon dioxide raises.
Also integrated is fabric on power coverage, gas offer developments, replacement situations, power usage, sustainable strength, rate research, gas escalation, strength and improvement, regulatory concerns, boundaries to implementation, conversion platforms, garage platforms, thermodynamic potency, gas chain potency, life-cycle potency, expertise concerns extracting, refining, air emission concerns, safeguard, traditional fuel hydrogen gasoline, methanol, ethanol, steam reforming and gas cells.
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Additional info for Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen
When distillation is complete, one door of the oven is opened, and the coke bar is pushed out and quenched. In modern coking plants, water quenching has been replaced by dry quenching, where the coke is smothered. This allows much of the heat of the coke charge to be recovered for various needs in the plant. In general, low temperature processes produce a softer coke and a larger proportion of by-products. Coke is used in blast furnace operations, foundries, and the manufacture of water gas, producer gas, domestic heating, and industrial purposes.
It differs from combustion in that it takes place in a closed vessel in the absence of air, thus preserving the calorific value of the products. This is done in large vertical or horizontal ovens where the gas, coke, and by-products are produced at high, mean, or low pressure, sometimes continuously and sometimes discontinuously. Modern byproduct or chemical-recovery ovens save the volatile components and produce coke. Large plants may use hundreds of horizontal ovens, in batteries of 50-60. A typical oven is 45 ft long by 13 ft high by 7 ft wide.
Naphthene oils are heavier and higher in viscous, volatile lubricating oils. Naphthene oils have an asphalt base, since distillation produces solid and semi-solid asphalt residues. Lower densities and residues of petroleum or paraffin wax are characteristic of paraffin oils. Hydrocarbons are grouped into a number of chemical series, with different chemical and physical properties. The four series making up the bulk of crude oil are shown in Table 2-3. Table 2-3. Crude Oil Chemical Series ——————————————————————————— Methane normal paraffin Isoparaffin branched-chain paraffins Cyclo-paraffin naphthene series Benzene aromatic ——————————————————————————— The methane, or paraffin, series starts as a simple, saturated, straight-chain, homologous series, advancing by a CH2 increment from its simplest member methane (CH2) to CH4 to complex molecules with more than 60 carbon atoms.