By Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Berdanier, Lynnette A.; Zempleni, Janos
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Additional info for Advanced Nutrition : Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism
This complete oxidation to CO2 and HOH will produce 36 molecules of ATP. 7. This is because fatty acids require far more oxygen for their oxidation than they produce as carbon dioxide. 7 When the fatty acids are mobilized from the stored triacylglycerols and the RQ is computed on this basis, a slightly higher RQ results. 719 A molecule of glucose will, when oxidized to pyruvate, yield a net of 8 molecules of ATP (2 molecules of ATP are needed for glycolysis). When glucose is oxidized to CO2 and HOH, 36 molecules of ATP are formed.
Of the inherent energy of palmitate, 36% is trapped by the body when this fuel is used, and 64% is released as heat (see discussion above). This 40/60 (rounded figures) distribution of energy available to the body versus that released as heat is an average distribution. More or less can occur in each category. 34–44 An example of the effect of diet composition on energetic efficiency occurs when an essential fatty aciddeficient diet is fed. This deficiency state is characterized by a decrease in the efficiency of use of food for body weight gain (see Chapter 8).
Since that time, physicians, nutritionists, and physiologists alike have accepted this as an obligatory and necessary response to illness or injury. With the advent of parenteral and enteral feeding techniques, it has been possible to show that this loss, formerly thought to be obligatory, is not. Indeed, losses due to surgery, infection, or burn have been shown to be minimized and even reversed (in some cases) with the provision of adequate nutritional support. This implies then, that the catabolic response to trauma or illness is more a response to inadequate nutrition in the face of a greatly increased set of nutrient requirements than to the trauma or illness itself.