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By David Harrison Ph.D. (auth.)

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Left side of heartoxygenated blood, to tissues Right side of heartdeoxygenated blood, to lungs. Brain Thick walled, elastic, carry blood from heart to tissues (or lungs). g. carotid a. (man) 90 mm Hg. Veins Thin walled, relatively inelastic, carry blood from tissues to heart. Contain semi-lunar valves. g. (man) hepatic portal vein l 0 mm Hg and inferior vena cava 3 mm Hg. S. S. vein Lungs >----+----+ . , I J!. I /' ~ +------<;.. Longitudinal muscle Capillaries Fine network bridging arteries and veins in tissues.

3. Urea and uric acid. 3% 4. Inorganic salts (Na+ CI- HC0 3- K+ mainly). BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION Red cells are produced at a fairly constant rate from haemopoietic tissue in bone marrow (adult man, about 25 g per day). In the young mammal the marrow of most bones is active, in the adult activity is more or less confined to the ribs, vertebrae, and sternum. White cells are produced more widely in the bone marrows than are red cells, but at a slower rate. They are also produced in the reticulo45 endothelial tissue in liver, spleen and lymphatic nodes.

In large, leafy plants leaf suction force is 55 probably the main force raising water against gravity. e. lignification is to prevent 'cavingin'). On the other hand strong cohesive forces in a water column depend on absence of air bubbles, a condition unlikely to be fulfilled in a vascular bundle. Possibly special mechanisms like bordered pits play some part in maintaining cohesion. g. about 20 feet for a 20,um diameter vessel. But since capillary is a surface tension phenomenon and there are no water/air interfaces in xylem it is difficult to see any part played by capillarity in transpiration.

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