By Carlo C. DiClemente
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Extra info for Addiction and change : how addictions develop and addicted people recover
It is also interesting to note that proponents of the disease model for alcoholism will not always use the same explanation for drugs of abuse and have some difficulty when the concept is extended to behaviors like gambling. For all addictive behaviors there appears to be a role for physiological mechanisms and, potentially, for genetic factors in the behavior’s initiation, problematic long-term use, abuse, and dependence. However, there are many questions and concerns about assigning sole causality or primacy to genetic/physiological factors (Newlin, Miles, van den Bree, Gupman, & Pickens, 2000).
18 UNDERSTANDING ADDICTIONS IN TERMS OF CHANGE Although the proposal of an integrative model represents an important advance over the more specific, single-factor models, proponents of the biopsychosocial approach have not explained how the integration of biological, psychological, sociological, and behavioral components occur. This model does allow researchers from different traditions to agree on complexity and to use a common term. , 1996; Sanjuan & Langenbucher, 1999; Schulenberg, Maggs, Steinman, & Zucker, 2001; Windle & Davies, 1999).
Change in humans takes place over time, at different points in the life cycle, and, most often, involves a sequence of events. , 1995; Kandel & Davies, 1992). In fact, the current developmental perspective on addiction is completely consistent with a process of change view on addictions. Schulenberg and colleagues (2001) characterize a developmental-contextual framework as one that “emphasizes multidimensional and multidirectional development across the life span, with stability and change occurring as a function of the dynamic interaction between individuals and their contexts” (p.