By Martin Maiden, Cecilia Robustelli
This Italian reference grammar presents scholars, lecturers and others drawn to the Italian language with a entire, obtainable and jargon-free advisor to the types and constitution of Italian.
Whatever their point of data of the language, freshmen of Italian will locate this e-book critical: it supplies transparent and distinct reasons of every thing from the main basic evidence equivalent to the relation among spelling and pronunciation, or the sorts of the item, to extra complicated issues comparable to a number of the nuances of the subjunctive. Formal or archaic discourse is wonderful from casual, daily utilization, and regionalisms also are indicated the place applicable.
The authors have taken care to make it a simple and illuminating reference device: broad cross-referencing allows readers to fast locate the knowledge they require, and likewise stimulates them to find new, similar evidence.
Read or Download A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian (2nd Edition) PDF
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Extra resources for A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian (2nd Edition)
Ogni essere umano deve morire ‘Every human being must die’). Monosyllable (monosillabo) – A word is ‘monosyllabic’ if it consists of just one syllable. Negation (negazione) – Asserting that something is not the case. A negative form or construction (such as non, nessuno, mai) is one having this function. Noun (sostantivo) – A class of words characteristically denoting ‘things’ or ‘notions’, and capable of appearing as the subject or object of the verb. , the underlined elements in Il cane/Il vapore/La linguistica non fa male ‘The dog/The steam/Linguistics doesn’t hurt’, or Odio il cane/il vapore/la linguistica ‘I hate the dog/the steam/linguistics’.
In the stressed diphthongs ie and uo the e and o are usually open: viene [ vjεne] ‘s/he comes’, ﬁero [ fjεro] ‘proud’, vuole [ vwɔle] ‘s/he wants’, cuore ['kwɔre] ‘the heart’, etc. ● As a broad generalization, e and o will be pronounced open in words which belong to the sphere of ‘learned’, ‘religious’, ‘scientiﬁc’, ‘technical’, ‘intellectual’ vocabulary. The relevant words frequently have easily recognizable counterparts in other languages, such as English: elettrico [e lεttriko] ‘electric’, ﬁlosofo [fi lɔzofo] ‘philosopher’, il credo [il krεdo] ‘the creed’, elicottero [eli kɔttero] ‘helicopter’, eccetera [et εtera] ‘etcetera’, etc.
A clue that the pronunciation is [e] or [o] may also be available from related English and modern Italian words, originally ‘borrowed’ from Latin,3 which contain i and u respectively: vetro [ vetro] capello [ka pello] legno [ le 3 o] vitreous vitreo capillary capillare ligneous ligneo molto [ molto] multitude corrotto [kor rotto] corrupt corruzione current corro [ korro] A knowledge of Latin itself is helpful, since Latin words containing stressed short i and u, or long e and o, generally show closed mid vowels [e] and [o] in Italian, whilst Latin words in short e and o usually have [ε] and [ɔ] in Italian.