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By Bertrand Russell

Given that its first book in 1945? Lord Russell's A heritage of Western Philosophy has been universally acclaimed because the extraordinary one-volume paintings at the topic — unheard of in its comprehensiveness, its readability, its erudition, its grace and wit. In seventy-six chapters he lines philosophy from the increase of Greek civilization to the emergence of logical research within the 20th century. one of the philosophers thought of are: Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, the Atomists, Protagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Cynics, the Sceptics, the Epicureans, the Stoics, Plotinus, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, Benedict, Gregory the nice, John the Scot, Aquinas, Duns Scotus, William of Occam, Machiavelli, Erasmus, extra, Bacon, Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, the Utilitarians, Marx, Bergson, James, Dewey, and finally the philosophers with whom Lord Russell himself is so much heavily linked — Cantor, Frege, and Whitehead, co-author with Russell of the huge Principia Mathematica.

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They were first of all associations for the worship of Dionysus; but they were distinguished by two features which were new among the Hellenes. They looked to a revelation as the source of religious authority, and they were organized as artificial communities. " Burnet goes on to state that there is a striking similarity between Orphic beliefs and those prevalent in India at about the same time, though he holds that there cannot have been any contact. He then comes on to the original meaning of the word "orgy," which was used by the Orphics to mean "sacrament," and was intended to purify the believer's soul and enable it to escape from the wheel of birth.

The goat was the symbol of fertility, because the peasants were too poor to possess bulls. When food was scarce, the statue of Pan was beaten. ) There was a clan of supposed were-wolves, associated, probably, ____________________ * Zoroaster's date, however, is very conjectural. C. See Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. IV, p. 207. ). About fifty years later, they were incorporated in Alexander's empire. -13- with human sacrifice and cannibalism. It was thought that whoever tasted the flesh of a sacrificed human victim became a werewolf.

He must be derived from animals of a different sort, because, owing to his long infancy, he could not have survived, originally, as he is now. Anaximander was full of scientific curiosity. He is said to have been the first man who made a map. He held that the earth is shaped like a cylinder. He is variously reported as saying the sun is as large as the earth, or twenty-seven times as large, or twenty-eight times as large. Wherever he is original, he is scientific and rationalistic. Anaximenes, the last of the Milesian triad, is not quite so interesting as Anaximander, but makes some important advances.

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