By Edward Shorter
Publish yr note: First released in 1996
In A historical past of Psychiatry, Edward Shorter exhibits us the cruel, farcical, and encouraging realities of society's altering attitudes towards and makes an attempt to accommodate its mentally ailing and the efforts of generations of scientists and physicians to ease their agony. He paints brilliant photographs of psychiatry's best historic figures and pulls no punches in assessing their roles in advancing or sidetracking our knowing of the origins of psychological illness.
Shorter additionally identifies the medical and cultural elements that formed the advance of psychiatry. He finds the forces at the back of the unparralleled sophisitication of psychiatry in Germany throughout the eighteenth and 19th centuries in addition to the emergence of the USA because the international capital of psychoanalysis.
This engagingly written, completely researched, and fiercely partisan account is compelling interpreting for someone with a private, highbrow, or specialist curiosity in psychiatry.
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Extra info for A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac
2005) Striving for coherence. Psychiatry’s efforts over classification. Journal of American Medical Association, 293, 2526–2528. , and Charney, D. S. (1981) The symptoms of major depressive illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 1–13. Parker, G. (2002) Differential effectiveness of newer and older antidepressants appears mediated by an age effect on the phenotypic expression of depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 106, 168–170. Parker, G. (2004) Critique of the guidelines for the treatment of depression: flaws in the construction.
Grinker and colleagues (1961) described those with hostile depression as unappreciative, actively angry, provocative and making excessive demands of – and complaints about – their therapists, suggesting a personality disorder contribution. The anxiety subgroup is variably interpreted as including either those with an anxious personality or temperament, or those with significant anxiety symptoms that occur when depressed. Thus, the nonmelancholic disorders are modelled as reflecting a blend of dimensional stressor and personality factors acting to diminish the individual’s self-esteem.
An early separatist view was put by Maudsley (1895) who distinguished between ‘melancholia’ and ‘melancholia with delusions’. Phenomenologically, the respective absence or presence of psychotic features appears to support a separate depressive subtype. Two meta-analyses examining treatment response give further support to this position. , 1992). Two phenomenological studies found that those with psychotic depression generally had psychotic features in addition to severe levels of PMD, but the latter could if particularly severe render the patient near-catatonic and compromise the eliciting of psychotic features during episode nadir (Parker, Hickie and Hadzi-Pavlovic, 1996).